RAKUCHŪRAKUGAI
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RAKUCHŪ RAKUGAI ZU BYŌBU (FUYUBON)

Inside and outside of the capital “KYŌTO” picture folding screens (This set is known as the: FUYU screens).



This set of Japanese late 19th century, MEIJI period (1868-1912), folding screens represents important and famous sites in Kyoto of that period. RAKUCHŪRAKUGAIZU folding screens have been made since the 16th century, the first record of this kind of screen dates back to 1506. Initially they were commissioned by the shoguns and contained political references, mainly to indicate who was in charge, but later were more popular as visual memories for the wealthier families in Japanese society, with references to historical festivals and daily activities of the people.

RAKUCHŪRAKUGAIZU generally are painted on a gold screen, known as KINBYŌBU, which were normally used for funerals and memorials. The golden hues associated with Buddhist temples and its paradisiacal aura. The golden clouds on the RAKUCHŪRAKUGAIZU screens bring a specific association of paradise to this style of screens.

On a more mundane level the gold gives off a specific shine and atmosphere to the screens, especially by lamplight and even more lifelike by candlelight, because of the moving flames and the shadows that they produce the screens really come to life.

Normally Kyoto is separated into 2 areas to be able to show the whole of the city. Initially it was separated into the north and the south, or the “Upper Capital” (KAMIGYŌ) and the “Lower Capital” (SHIMOGYŌ). In the “Upper Capital” we found mainly courtiers, samurai and other city military elite. In the “Lower Capital” we found mainly merchants, artisans, sake brewers, pawnbrokers and moneylenders. The separation line between upper and lower was the IchijŌ (first avenue).

Later the separation east and west was used, like in the FUYU screens.
The FUYU set of screens show the east and west of Kyoto. Separated through the middle with as the separator ABURA-KŌJI (north-south direction), in between HORIKAWA DORI (street) and KARASUMA DORI (street). There is discussion on how to display these screens, generally sets of screens are placed next to one another (left-right with continuous or semicontinuous images), but it looks appropriate for these screens to be placed opposite one another. The person viewing the screens will feel like being in the middle of the city.
On the older versions of the screens generally labels with names (HARIFUDA) or writing directly on the screens can be found to indicate all the important locations, but on this screen they are missing.

The FUYU screens are not completely unique, there exist at least one other set that is similar in its general set-up, but there are differences in the location of some buildings and colours that are used on the textiles of the human figures, so in a way they are unique..
We have tried to identify all the buildings and activities found on the screens and hope that we are correct in our findings. Any suggestions are greatly appreciated.
More details:
RAKUCHŪ - inside the capital (Kyoto)
RAKUGAI - outside the capital (Kyoto)
ZU - picture or plan
BYŌBU - folding screen

The screens were made in the late 19th century (MEIJI 1868-1912)
The screens measure each: 172cm high x 369cm wide fully extended.
A total of 1157 people inhabit both screens (right screen-east Kyoto 577, left-screen-west Kyoto 580).
A total of 3 imperial ox-carts with a total of 4 oxes, goshoguruma, are found.
A total of 3 palanquins, kago, are found.
A total of 3 Gion Matsuri high wheeled floats, Gion Matsuri Yama, are found.
A total of 1 portable shrine, mikoshi, is found.
Sources:
Capitalscapes by Matthew Philip McKelway – ISBN 0-8248-2900-X
ByŌbu by Miyeko Murase – ISBN 0-87484-035-8

Sources on the internet:
http://www.rekihaku.ac.jp/e_gallery/rakutyuu/index.html
http://tois1.nichibun.ac.jp/database/html/rakutyu/rakutyu_funaki_menu.html
http://rakuchu-rakugai.jp/world/index.html#
http://www.kyoto.kkr.mlit.go.jp/kyomichi/en/road/map.html
http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/deta/r/rakuchuurakugaizu.htm

right screen - east Kyoto
north ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------sourth

1 - HŌKOKU shrine (mausoleum for HIDEYOSHI built in 1599)

2 - SANJUSANGENDO (where sumo wrestling matches were being held)

3 - KAMO river

4 - HIGASHI HONGANJI ??

5 - Unknown

6 - KIYUMIZUDERA

7 - The Great Buddha Hall of HŌKŌJI (dedicated to TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI (1536-1598) in 1591)

8 - GOJŌ bridge

9 - GION MATSURI with YAMA wheeled floats (held on and off in mid-July since 970)

10 - YASAKA shrine

11 - GION shrine

12 - KABUKI stages

13 - SHIJŌ bridge

14 - TERAMACHI DORI (street), Takase gawa (canal constructed in 1611)

15 Unknown

16 - Unknown

17 - NANZENJI

18 - Unknown

19 - SEIGANJI

20 - SANJŌ DORI (street)

21 - Unknown

22 - SANJŌ bridge

23 - SEIRYŌDEN ???

24 - GOSHŌ Imperial Palace with a MIKOSHI or portable shrine being carried by 8 men

25 - KAMIGAMO (KAMI-KAMO)shrine with a horse racing contest, organised on the 5th of may each year, since 678

26 - GOSHŌ Imperial Palace Inner Courtyard

27 - Small SAMURAI procession

28 - Unknown

29 - HIGASHI YAMA (mountain)

left screen - west Kyoto
south -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------north

1 - KINKAKUJI

2 - KITANO shrine

3 - DAITOKUJI ???

4 - Ox-cart, GOSHOGURUMA, imperial procession going to or returning to NIJŌ castle

5 - SHIMABARA (prostitute district)

6 - KITANO KYODO shrine ???

7 - SHOSHIDAI mansion ???

8 - RYŌANJI

9 - husking rice (near SHAKADŌ village in SAGANO district??)

10 - HORIKAWA DORI (street and canal)

11 - NIJŌ castle (built as a temporary residence in KYŌTO for SHOGUN IEYASU in 1603 and was renovated in 1626, to, amongst other changes, also include the keep (TENSHUKAKU))

12 - SEIRYŌJI

13 - TENRYŪJI

14- MYŌSHINJI

15 - KATSURA villa

16 - KATSURA river

17 - Unknown

18 - RINSENJI temple ????

19 - NISHIHONGANJI

20 - NISHI YAMA (mountain)

21 - ARASHI YAMA (mountain)

22 - KITA YAMA (mountain)

RAKUCHŪ RAKUGAI ZU BYŌBU (fuyubon)
Click on each panel to see details.
LEFT SCREEN - WEST KYOTO RIGHT SCREEN -EAST KYOTO
MAP of contemporary KYOTO

Enlarge West - Enlarge East

east screen
---------------------------------------------------------------------higashiyama--------------------------------



west screen
---------nishiyama -----------------------arashiyama---------------------------------------------kitayama



1.1 HŌKOKU shrine (mausoleum for HIDEYOSHI built in 1599)
east screen - 1st panel



1.2 SANJUSANGENDO (where SUMO wrestling matches were being held)
east screen - 1st panel



1.3 KAMO river
east screen - 1-2-3-4-5th panel



1.4 HIGASHI HONGANJI ???
east screen - 1st panel



1.5
east screen - 1st panel



1.6 KIYUMIZUDERA
east screen - 2nd panel

1.7 The Great Buddha Hall of HŌKŌJI (dedicated to TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI (1536-1598) in 1591)
east screen - 2nd panel



1.8 GOJŌ bridge
east screen - 2nd panel



1.9 GION MATSURI with yama wheeled floats (held on and off in mid-July since 970)
east screen - 2nd-3rd panel



1.10 YASAKA
east screen - 4th panel



1.11 GION shrine
east screen - 3rd-4th panel



1.12 KABUKI stages
east screen - 3rd panel



1.13 SHIJŌ bridge
east screen - 3rd panel



1.14 TERAMACHI DORI (street), TAKASAGAWA (canal constructed in 1611)
east screen - 3rd-4th panel



1.15
east screen -3rd panel



1.16
east screen - 3rd panel



1.17 NANZENJI
east screen - 4th panel



1.18
east screen - 4th panel



1.19 SEIGANJI
east screen - 4th panel



1.20 SANJŌ DORI (street)
east screen - 4th panel



1.21
east screen - 5-6th panel



1.22 SANJOŌ bridge
east screen - 5th panel



1.23 SEIRYŌden ???
east screen - 5th panel



1.24 GOSHŌ Imperial Palace with a MIKOSHI or portable shrine being carried by 8 men
east screen - 5-6th panel



1.25 KAMIGAMO (KAMI-KAMO)shrine with a horse racing contest, organised on the 5th of may each year, since 678
east screen - 6th panel



1.26 GOSHŌ Imperial Palace Inner Courtyard
east screen - 6th panel



1.27 small SAMURAI procession
east screen - 6th panel



1.28
east screen - 4th panel



2.1 KINKAKUJI
west screen - 7th panel



2.2 KITANO Shrine
west screen - 7th panel



2.3 DAITOKUJI ???
west screen - 7th panel



2.4 Ox-cart, GOSHOGURUMA, imperial procession going to or returning to NIJŌ castle
west screen - 7-8-9th panel



2.5 SHIMABARA (prostitute district)
west screen - 7-8-9-10th panel



2.6 KITANO KYODO Shrine west screen - 8th panel



2.7 SHOSHIDAI mansion ???
>west screen - 7.8th panel



2.8 RYŌANJI
west screen - 9th panel



2.9 husking rice (near SHKADŌ village in SAGANO district ???)
west screen - 9th panel



2.10 HORIKAWA DORI (street and canal)
west screen - 7-8-9-10-11th panel



2.11 NIJŌ castle (built as a temporary residence in KYŌTO for SHOGUN IEYASU in 1603 and was renovated in 1626, to, amongst other changes, also include the keep (tenshukaku))
west screen - 9-10th panel



2.12 SEIRYŌJI
west screen - 10th panel



2.13 TENRYŪJI
west screen - 11th panel



2.14 MYŌSHINJI
west screen - 11th panel



2.15 KATSURA villa
west screen - 12th panel



2.16 KATSURA river
west screen - 11-12th panel



2.17
west screen - 12th panel



2.18 RINSENJI temple ???

west screen - 12th panel



2.19 NISHIHONGANJI
west screen - 12th panel